The Type 2 Diabetes Sourcebook for Women (Sourcebooks)

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Diabetes mellitus (type 1, type 2) & diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)

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Terms and conditions apply. Subject to credit approval. Learn More. Immediate payment required for this item. Very Good ,. Buy it now - Add to Watch list Added to your Watch list. Back to home page. It is also misleading since we are now diagnosing type 2 diabetes in children, especially in indigenous groups or children who are obese. Because people with type 1 diabetes depend on insulin injections to live, it was also once called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus IDDM.

Only 10 percent of all people with diabetes have type 1 diabetes. Since type 2 diabetes is a disease of resistance to, rather than an absence of, insulin, it often can be managed through diet and exercise, without insulin injections. But since many people with type 2 diabetes may require insulin down the road, NIDDM is an inaccurate and misleading name and is not used anymore. In fact, about one-third of all people with type 2 diabetes will eventually need insulin therapy.

For reasons I will discuss later in this book, type 2 diabetes can progress and become more severe over the years, requiring insulin therapy. Nonetheless, you may still see these terms widely used in diabetes literature. Mature-onset diabetes in the young MODY referred to type 2 diabetes in people under thirty years old.

None of these terms are used anymore. Yes, they are. In the late s, consensus was reached in the diabetes medical community over finally dropping the Roman numerals and using only Arabic 1 and 2 in the literature to distinguish between the two types of diabetes. The term latent autoimmune diabetes LADA has been used to describe the small number of people who are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, but who actually have type 1 diabetes—the autoimmune form of diabetes.

What Happens in Type 2 Diabetes? If you have type 2 diabetes, your pancreas is functioning. You are making plenty of insulin. In fact, you are probably making too much insulin, a condition called hyperinsulinemia. Insulin is a hormone made by your beta cells, the insulin-producing cells within the islets of Langerhans—small islands of cells afloat in your pancreas. The pancreas is a bird beak—shaped gland located behind the stomach.

Insulin is a major player in our bodies. One of its most important functions is to regulate blood sugar levels. That sugar is absolutely vital to your health and provides your cells with the energy they need to function. Two things happen when the cells resist insulin. First, the sugar will accumulate in your bloodstream because it has nowhere to go.

This results in high blood sugar. Second, your pancreas will keep sending out more insulin to try to get your cells to open that door. This causes too much sugar and too much insulin to pile up. This is a bad combination of problems, which can lead to high blood pressure also called hypertension and high cholesterol, and a host of other complications. If insulin resistance goes on for too long, the pancreas can become overworked and eventually may not make enough, or any, insulin.

This is why some people with type 2 diabetes may require insulin injections one day. I discuss this in more detail later on. When the body uses insulin properly, it not only lowers blood sugar but also assists in the distribution of fat and protein. Insulin also increases appetite, which can also lead to obesity. This can create a number of problems, discussed in later chapters. Many people who suffer a heart attack or stroke have type 2 diabetes. High blood sugar can also become aggravated by glycogen, a form of glucose that is stored in the liver and muscles, which is released when you need energy.

Insulin enables your cells to store glucose as glycogen. But when your cells are resisting insulin, glycogen can be released in a confused response because it appears to the cells that there is no sugar in the blood. Often the problem is that your body becomes increasingly more resistant to the insulin your pancreas is producing. This is sometimes exacerbated by medications or the disease over time.

Controlling your blood sugar becomes harder and harder until, ultimately, you need to inject insulin. You may also require insulin if you go for long periods with high blood sugar levels. In this case, the high blood sugar can put you at very high risk for other health complications. It is not unusual to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in a later stage and prescribed insulin. Conditions That Can Lead to Type 2 Diabetes There are a variety of risk factors for type 2 diabetes, such as high cholesterol or obesity, which I discuss in Chapter 2.

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The following conditions, however, are definite precursors to type 2 diabetes, meaning that if you have any of the following conditions, you are at very high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In the past, your blood was tested immediately after the drink and then every thirty minutes until the three-hour mark. Today most centers will just test you two hours later. The more convenient fasting plasma glucose test, widely recommended by the American Diabetes Association, can result in a missed diagnosis in many women.

Metabolic Syndrome or Syndrome X Metabolic syndrome also called Syndrome X describes a group of people with insulin resistance and impaired fasting glucose levels and a distinct collection of other health problems that include abdominal obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia abnormal lipids. People with metabolic syndrome do not yet have type 2 diabetes but are at a much higher risk of developing it, along with cardiovascular disease.

Essentially, if you have three or more of the following health conditions in addition to insulin resistance demonstrated by impaired fasting glucose—see Table 1. Approximately 20 percent of all women with gestational diabetes develop type 2 diabetes, presuming no other risk factors. If you are genetically predisposed to type 2 diabetes, a history of gestational diabetes can raise your risk of eventually developing the disease.

Gestational diabetes develops more often in women who were overweight prior to pregnancy and women who are over thirty-five; the risk increases with maternal age. If your mother had gestational diabetes, you are also more likely to develop it. For a more detailed discussion, see Chapter 3.

If you had diabetes prior to your pregnancy type 1 or type 2 , it is known in the medical literature as preexisting diabetes, which is a completely different story and not at all the same thing as gestational diabetes. This can cause the gland to bleed, as well as serious tissue damage, infection, and cysts. Other organs, such as the heart, lungs, and kidneys, could be affected in severe cases. Ninety percent of all chronic pancreatitis affects men between thirty and forty years of age.

In rare cases, chronic pancreatitis is inherited, but experts are not sure why this is. People with chronic pancreatitis tend to have three main symptoms: pain, weight loss due to poor food absorption and digestion , and diabetes the type of diabetes depends on how much damage has been done to the islet or insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. The treatment usually is to first stop drinking. Then the resulting diabetes is managed like that of any other diabetes patient: using blood glucose monitoring, meal planning, and possibly insulin injections. This occurs when your diabetes is a side effect of a particular drug or surgical procedure.

A number of prescription medications, including steroids or Dilantin, can raise your blood sugar levels, which would affect the outcome of a blood sugar test, for example. Who Gets Type 2 Diabetes? Screening studies show that type 2 diabetes is prevalent all over the world, particularly in Westernized countries.

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  5. Type 2 diabetes is increasing in the developed world at an annual rate of about 6 percent, while the number of people with type 2 diabetes doubles every fifteen years. Roughly 6 percent of all Caucasian adults have type 2 diabetes, but the disease affects North Americans of African descent at a rate of 12 to 15 percent, Hispanics at a rate of 20 percent, and Native North Amer- 10 The Type 2 Diabetes Sourcebook for Women icans at a rate exceeding 30 percent.

    In some Native North American communities, up to 70 percent of adults have type 2 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes are four times more likely to develop heart disease and five times more likely to suffer a stroke than people without type 2 diabetes. If you consume a diet higher in fat than carbohydrates and low in fiber, you increase your risk for type 2 diabetes if you are genetically predisposed to the disease.

    If you weigh at least 20 percent more than you should for your height and age, are sedentary, and are over the age of forty-five, you are considered at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Risk Factors You Can Change Type 2 diabetes more than meets the requirements to be called an epidemic. In , it was estimated that An estimated 5.

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    Thirty-two percent of people who have at least three of the risk factors can double their risk of developing type 2 diabetes, while 89 percent of people with the disease have at least one modifiable risk factor. That means you can lower your risk of developing diabetes by changing your lifestyle or diet. There are two categories of risk: modifiable risk factors—risk factors you can change; and risk markers—risk factors you cannot change, such as your age or genes.

    You look at the age of the horse, its vigor and shape, its breeding, its training, and where the race is being run. Then you come up with odds. Chance, of course, plays a role in horse racing. In the same way, even though there are some risk factors you cannot change, by changing the factors you can, you can improve your likelihood of having good health. You can reduce the risk if you make the change. High Cholesterol Cholesterol is a whitish, waxy fat made in vast quantities by the liver.

    Cholesterol is also known as a lipid, the umbrella name for the many different fats found in the body. Cholesterol is needed to make hormones as well as cell membranes. Dietary cholesterol is found only in foods from animals and fish.

    The daily maximum amount of dietary cholesterol recommended by nutrition experts is milligrams mg. If you have high cholesterol, the excess cholesterol in your blood can lead to narrowed arteries, which in turn can lead to a heart attack. Saturated fat, discussed in detail in Chapter 5, is often a culprit when it comes to high cholesterol, but the highest levels of cholesterol are due to a genetic defect in the liver. When diabetes is in control, cholesterol levels will return to normal, which will cut your risk of heart disease and stroke as well.

    The usual pattern in type 2 diabetes is to have high triglycerides, lower than optimal levels of good cholesterol or HDL, and normal levels of bad cholesterol or LDL. Your doctor may recommend cholesterol-lowering drugs if your lifestyle changes are not successful. High cholesterol is also called hypercholesterolemia. Another term used in conjunction with high cholesterol is hyperlipidemia, which refers to an elevation of lipids fats in the bloodstream; lipids include cholesterol and triglycerides the most common form of fat from food sources in our bodies.

    Total blood cholesterol levels are guidelines only. You also have to look at the relative proportion of high-density lipoprotein HDL or good cholesterol to low-density lipoprotein LDL or bad cholesterol in the blood. Weight loss of roughly 20 pounds can reduce LDL levels by 15 percent, reduce triglyceride levels by 30 percent, increase HDL levels by 8 percent, and reduce your total cholesterol levels by 10 percent. You may be a candidate for one of the numerous cholesterol-lowering drugs. These are strong drugs, however, and they ought to be a last resort after really giving a lowfat, low-cholesterol diet a chance.

    You might be given a combination of cholesterol-lowering medications to try with a low-cholesterol diet. One study looking at male patients taking cholesterol-lowering drugs found an unusually high rate of suicide and accidental trauma. Please note that only the generic drug names are listed. When combined with the proper diet, statins can reduce your risk of death from heart disease by as much as 40 percent. However, certain statins have been known to cause liver damage, muscle pain, and weakness.

    Fibrates These lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood. In a Finnish study, the rate of coronary artery disease among four thousand men with high cholesterol dropped 34 percent when they took fibrates. Niacin Niacin, a water-soluble B vitamin, can lower LDL by 30 percent and triglyceride levels by as much as 55 percent. It also increases HDL by about 35 percent. Recent studies suggest that niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, should be taken at a dose ranging between and 2, milligrams per day.

    Many patients experience itching, flushing, and panic attacks when taking these doses of niacin, however. Switching to slow-release capsules, taking an aspirin thirty minutes before taking the medication, or taking it on a full stomach might help alleviate some of these symptoms. The trouble with niacin is that it can increase blood sugar, and therefore aggravate diabetes as well as stomach ulcers. If your HDL levels are too low and you are at risk of cardiovascular problems, niacin may be worth taking if you cannot adjust your diet appropriately.

    Resins Resins, technically called bile acid sequestrants, these drugs, such as cholestyramine, help the body eliminate cholesterol through the gut. A National Institutes of Health study in the early s demonstrated that cholestyramine decreases heart attack deaths by lowering cholesterol levels.

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    In fact, for each 1 percent drop in the cholesterol levels of participants, there was a 2 percent drop in death rates, which is pretty impressive when you consider that the average decline in blood cholesterol was 25 percent. Although cholestyramine reduces LDL, or bad cholesterol, it can sometimes raise triglyceride levels. It can also trigger a host of side effects, the most unpleasant of which is really bad gas.

    Cholestyramine interferes with the effectiveness of digitalis, diuretics, warfarin, thyroxine thyroid hormone , fat-soluble vitamins, and beta-blockers. It can also lead to gallstones. Cholestyramine should be taken in the morning and at bedtime. There are other cholesterol-lowering agents reported in both the medical and alternative medicine literature, including trials using coenzyme Q10, but the agents discussed in this book are based on what diabetes experts are prescribing to people with type 2 diabetes. The blood flows from the heart into the arteries blood vessels , pressing against the artery walls.

    The simplest way to explain this is to think about the streets of a small city. During the evening rush hour everybody drives home using the same major streets that head to the suburbs. This results in lane closures, and the traffic backs up as the diminished road capacity is forced to accept the same flow of cars returning home.

    This is much like the constricted blood vessels, some partially blocked by fatty deposits of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ASCVD , attempting to handle the full flow of blood needed by your body. Over time, the left ventricle enlarges and thickens as it works 16 The Type 2 Diabetes Sourcebook for Women harder than normal to squeeze the blood through the constricted and narrowed arteries. The thickened heart muscle is more difficult to feed through its own coronary arteries and demands greater sustenance from these coronary arteries, placing it at greater risk of a heart attack death of a section of the heart muscle should the coronary arteries have fatty narrowing or blood clots.

    Since each pumping chamber of the heart, the two ventricles and their respective atria, have one-way heart valves that only let blood flow in the proper forward direction, the increased pressure of the blood places greater strain on the heart valves. Any leaking of blood backward through any of the valves, worsened by hypertension, adds to the backward congestion of blood in the body regions feeding that side of the heart lungs feeding the left side and the rest of the body feeding the right side.

    This shows itself as worsening congestive heart failure. The term hypertension refers to the tension or force exerted on your artery walls. The Y is the diastolic pressure, which is the pressure that occurs when the heart rests between contractions. Genetic factors are very important as well, so that your risks for hypertension are much higher if it runs in your family, and there are certain ethnic groups with greater risks. High blood pressure can also be caused by kidney disorders prevalent in people with diabetes or during pregnancy known as pregnancyinduced hypertension.

    Estrogen-containing medications such as oral contraceptives , nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs —such as ibuprofen, nasal decongestants, cold remedies, appetite suppressants, certain antidepressants, and other drugs—can all increase blood pressure. Be sure to check with your pharmacist. Specifically, the DASH diet is recommended. This diet involves limiting sodium intake to 1, milligrams per day; lowering saturated fat, cholesterol, and total fat mainly by reducing red meat, sweets, and sugar-containing beverages ; increasing intake of whole-grain products, fish, poultry, and nuts; and increasing intake of fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy foods.

    Some still-inconclusive studies suggest that people with hypertension are calcium- and potassium-deficient. Studies show that lowering stress leads to a decrease in blood pressure. ACE inhibitors are also used to treat heart failure. Possible side effects include a cough and swelling of the face and tongue. Alpha-Blocking Agents Alpha-blocking agents block the effects of noradrenaline, a stress hormone, allowing the blood vessels to relax. Blood pressure and cholesterol decrease with treatment.

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    You may also notice an increase in HDL, or good cholesterol. A possible side effect is blood pressure variation when standing versus reclining. Essentially ARBs act further down the angiotensin pathway. Beta-Blockers Beta-blockers alter the way hormones like adrenaline control blood pressure. Possible side effects include fatigue and an increase in blood sugar and cholesterol levels. Another major problem with beta-blockers is that because they block adrenaline, they can mask signs of hypoglycemia see Chapter 8 , which could be dangerous if your blood sugar levels are not well controlled.

    Calcium Channel Blockers Calcium channel blockers limit the amount of calcium entering the cells, allowing the muscles in the blood vessels to relax. Possible side effects include ankle swelling, flushing, constipation, and indigestion. Centrally Acting Agents These drugs act through centers in the brain to slow the heart rate and relax the blood vessels. Possible side effects include stuffy nose, dry mouth, and drowsiness. Diuretics Diuretics are the most commonly used blood pressure medication. But diuretics may actually increase the risk of heart attack by leaching potassium salts needed by the heart, and the heart may respond to blocked nerve signals by trying harder and harder until it fails.

    Another common side effect of diuretic therapy is low potassium. If you make sure not to substitute one therapy for another, diuretics will not affect your potassium levels. Other side effects include increased blood sugar and cholesterol levels. Vasodilators Vasodilators dilate, or relax, the blood vessels, thereby reducing blood pressure. Obesity Chapter 2 covers the important risk factor of obesity, and Chapter 5 discusses lowering fat and healthy eating. Smoking Smoking and diabetes are a toxic combination.

    You already know that smoking leads to heart attacks. But what you might not know is that if you have type 2 diabetes and do not smoke, you are already four times more likely to have a heart attack than a person without diabetes. If you smoke and have type 2 diabetes, you have an even greater risk of having a heart attack. In spite of these well-known statistics on the dangers of smoking and diabetes, however, only half of North American smokers with diabetes are advised to quit by their doctors. Women and Smoking Women tend to begin smoking in their teens as a way to control their weight.

    The idea of controlling weight with cigarettes emerged in the s when a tobacco company wife was told by her doctor to smoke to relax; not only did smoking relax her, but it actually helped to curb her appetite. Thus the luring of women to cigarettes as a food replacement began. In fact, medical journals and the medical profession at that time actually recommended smoking to women as a way to calm 20 The Type 2 Diabetes Sourcebook for Women them. Even in the absence of diabetes, smoking-related diseases kill more women than any other health or social problem. The number one killer of women is smoking-related heart disease.

    Next come smoking-related lung cancer, smoking-related stroke, and smokingrelated chronic lung diseases, which are very common, yet underreported. And did you know that early menopause and osteoporosis are more common among smokers? Age The risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases with age. Screening by age forty is the current recommendation. Perhaps at no other time in history has the population included so many people over age forty. However, the lifestyle and dietary habits you practice before age forty count—either against you or for you.

    So, by changing your diet and becoming more active before age forty, you may not necessarily be able to prevent your genetic fate, but you may certainly be able to delay it. And in the event that you develop type 2 diabetes, a healthy diet and active lifestyle will go a long way in controlling the disease. When underdeveloped populations become urbanized and adopt a Western lifestyle, there is an explosion in type 2 diabetes. But the genes must be present in order to allow for the disease in the first place. This is more proof that there is a genetic-environmental combination at work when it comes to this disease.

    What aspect of westernization triggers type 2 diabetes? Western means many things, including a higherfat diet and less physical activity, as well as more access to medical care, which means people live longer. And what role does earlier screening and better detection of type 2 diabetes play in the perceived global increase of the disease?

    What Are the Odds? Type 2 diabetes is caused by multiple factors. The odds of developing it have to do with some genes interacting with some environmental factors.

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    Obesity, excess calories, deficient calorie expenditure, and aging can all lead to a resistance to insulin. If you remove the environmental risks, however, you can probably modify the risk of type 2 diabetes. Your Ethnic Background As discussed earlier, indigenous cultures for example, Native Americans, such as Pima and Navaho; Pacific Islanders develop type 2 diabetes at far higher rates than the general population. Roughly 13 percent of Native American adults have diabetes, meaning that they are affected by this disease at three times the rate of nonnative adults.

    We also see two to five times more new cases in native populations than nonnative populations. On some reserves, type 2 diabetes is present in 70 percent of the adult population. It is thought to be responsible for the higher rates of type 2 diabetes in indigenous populations. This means that the more recently your culture has lived indigenously or nomadically that is, living off the land you came from and eating seasonally , the more efficient your metabolism is.

    Unfortunately, it is also more sensitive to nutrient excess. This is an exceedingly short amount of time for thousands of years of hunter-gatherer genes to adjust to a Western diet. Again, four hundred years is not a long time. Some immigrant populations come from families who have spent generations in poverty. Their metabolisms adjusted to long periods of famine and are often overloaded by Western foods. Poverty itself may also be a risk factor.

    Type 2 diabetes seems to occur in Southeast Asian populations at Western rates even when the diet is Eastern. East Indians, in particular, have very high rates of heart disease. In fact, India has the largest type 2 population in the world. Urbanization is cited as a major factor.

    Your risk of developing type 2 diabetes depends on your mix of genes and your current and past lifestyle and diet. If you are part Native American and part European, for example, you will probably need to be more conscientious about your diet than if you are part Asian and part European. Studying your family tree and family history of type 2 diabetes is the best way to assess your risk and make the necessary changes in your own diet and lifestyle to fight it.

    Any disease affecting the pancreas, such as cystic fibrosis and pancreatic cancer, also lead to diabetes. Women should be on alert for recurring vaginal yeast infections. High blood sugar affects the blood vessels in your mouth, causing inflamed gums; the sugar content can get into your saliva, causing cavities in your teeth. These are the most commonly cited in the medical literature and exclude pediatric disorders. For more information about any of the diseases listed in this table, contact the National Organization for Rare Disorders. The majority of women with type 2 diabetes 80 percent struggle with obesity.

    As women age, their metabolism changes, which can lead to weight gain even without changes in diet or exercise. Many women begin to struggle with weight gain in their forties. Many women have a pre-existing weight problem from earlier pregnancies that gets aggravated with age and more sedentary living. Some women struggle with the genetic tendency to gain weight, due to thrifty genes, which are discussed later in this chapter. In most cases type 2 diabetes develops as a complication of obesity.

    Heart disease, circulation and digestive problems, and a higher risk of certain cancers are other complications obese women face. At one time, anyone who weighed 20 percent more than the ideal weight for their age and height was defined as obese. A more accurate indicator, the body mass index BMI , is now the best measurement of obesity. The BMI is calculated by dividing your weight in kilograms by your height in meters squared. According to cdc. As of this writing, a BMI calculator can be found at consumer. Currently, a BMI of A BMI between People with a BMI between 25 and A BMI between 35 and Obesity is not an eating disorder, but it can be the result of compulsive overeating, known as binge eating disorder BED , discussed later in this chapter.

    Roughly 20 to 46 percent of obese people suffer from BED. Obesity rates in children and teens are calculated through BMIs that are at or above sex- and age-specific weights within the ninetyfifth percentiles. This is a more conservative approach than was previously used to account for growing spurts. When you are obese with type 2 diabetes, you are instructed by your doctor to lose weight. For many women, the key to losing weight is to understand why they got fat to begin with. What are the external factors that you should take into account? Obesity experts consider the Western lifestyle to be the single largest contributing factor to obesity.

    North Americans have the highest obesity rates in the world. More than half of North American adults and about 25 percent of North American children are now obese. These figures reflect a doubling of adult obesity rates since the s, and a doubling of the childhood obesity rate since the late s—a staggering increase when you think about it in raw numbers. Obese children will most likely grow up to become obese adults, according to the most recent research. Waist circumference is another factor in calculating obesity—particularly abdominal obesity. Women with a waist circumference of thirty-five inches or more are at increased risk of obesity-related health problems.

    Amazingly, diabetes experts have noted that when their patients lose just five pounds, the body begins to use insulin more effectively. Where did the modern diet come from? Bouchardat, a French physician in the s, who noticed that his diabetic patients seemed to do rather well in war. When their food was rationed, the sugar disappeared from the urine of Dr. It was at this point that a connection between food quantity and diabetes was made. Wartime rations forced people to survive on brown bread, oats, barley meal, and home-grown produce.

    Had it not been for the Depression, we in North America might have seen an increase in type 2 diabetes much earlier than we did. The seeds of sedentary life were already planted in the s, as consumer comforts, mainly the automobile and radio, led to more driving, less walking, and more sedentary recreation. The Depression interrupted what was supposed to be prosperous times for everyone. It also inter- 30 The Type 2 Diabetes Sourcebook for Women cepted obesity and all diseases related to obesity, as the people in most industrialized nations ate barely enough to survive.

    The Depression years, combined with six long years of war, led to an unprecedented yearning for consumer goods such as cars, refrigerators, stoves, radios, and washing machines. The return of the veterans led to an unprecedented baby boom, driving the candy, sweets, and junk-food markets for decades to come. Opportunities from U. Bill, led to advancement in education and wealth. Never before had North Americans had so much money. Manufacturers and packaged-goods companies were looking for better ways to compete and sell their products.

    The answer to their prayers arrived in the late s with the cathode ray tube: television. In the end, television would become the appliance most responsible for dietary decline and sedentary lifestyle as it turned into a babysitter that mesmerized the baby boom generation for hours. The Diet of Leisure Naturally, after the war, people wanted to celebrate. They gave parties, drank wine, smoked, and went to restaurants. Their diets included more high-fat items, refined carbohydrates, sugar, alcohol, and chemical additives.

    And as people began to manage large families, easy-fix meals in boxes and cans were manufactured in abundance and sold on television to millions. The demand for the diet of leisure radically changed agriculture, too. Today, 80 percent of our grain harvest feeds livestock. The rest of our arable land is used for other cash crops such as tomatoes, sugar, coffee, and bananas.

    Ultimately, these changes have helped to create the modern Western diet: huge amounts of meat, eggs, dairy products, sugar, and refined flour. Since , chemical additives and preservatives in food have risen by percent. In , the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association of the United States FEMA established a panel of experts to determine the safety status of food flavorings to deal with the overwhelming number of chemicals that companies wanted to add to our foods. Women, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes 31 One of the most popular food additives is monosodium glutamate MSG , the sodium salt of glutamic acid, an amino acid that occurs naturally in protein-containing foods such as meat, fish, milk, and many vegetables.

    It was originally extracted from seaweed and other plant sources to function in foods the same way as other spices or extracts. Today, MSG is made from starch, corn sugar, or molasses from sugarcane or sugar beets. MSG is produced by a fermentation process similar to that used for making beer, vinegar, and yogurt. This fact notwithstanding, the main problem with MSG is that it arouses our appetites even more. MSG, widespread in our food supply, makes food taste better.

    And the better food tastes, the more we eat. Basic consumer health information about the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sleep disorders in children and adults, along with facts about how and why people sleep, diseases that affect sleep and the health consequences of sleep deprivation. Provides basic consumer health information about nicotine addiction and smoking cessation, with facts about the health effects of tobacco use, including lung and other cancers, heart disease, stroke, and respiratory disorders such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis, a glossary of related terms, resources for additional help, and information and index.

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    Childhood Diseases and Disorders Sourcebook, 4th Ed. Childhood Diseases and Disorders Sourcebook, 5th Ed. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Sourcebook, 6th Ed. Congenital Disorders Sourcebook, 4th Ed. Contagious Diseases Sourcebook, 4th Ed. Death and Dying Sourcebook, 3rd Ed. Death and Dying Sourcebook, 4th Ed. Depression Sourcebook, 4th Ed. Depression Sourcebook, 5th Ed. Diabetes Sourcebook, 7th Ed. Diet and Nutrition Sourcebook, 5th Ed. Publication Date: Aug. Disabilities Sourcebook, 4th Ed. Disease Management Sourcebook, 2nd Ed. Domestic Violence Sourcebook, 6th Ed.

    Drug Abuse Sourcebook, 6th Ed. Eating Disorders Sourcebook, 5th Ed. Emerging Infectious Diseases Sourcebook Provides basic consumer health information about the immune system, facts about the spread of disease, information on emerging infectious diseases, international travel guidance, diagnostic tests, treatment methods, and prevention and vaccination programs, along with reports on current research initiatives and additional resources.

    Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders Sourcebook, 3rd Ed. Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders Sourcebook, 4th Ed. Environmental Health Sourcebook, 5th Ed. Eye Care Sourcebook, 5th Ed. Fitness and Exercise Sourcebook, 5th Ed.