Pattern Synthesis: Lectures in Pattern Theory Volume 1

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Some regular structures 1. The mathematical study of regularity 2. A Pattern Formalism 2. The principle of atomism 2. The combinatory principle 2. The principle of observability 2. The principle of realism 3. Algebra of Regular Structures 3. Generator coordinates 3. Configuration coordinates 3. Connectors 3. Configuration homomorphisms 3. Configuration categories 3.

Set operations in C R 3. Operations on images 3. Homomorphisms for given global regularity 3. Representations by image isomorphisms 4. Some Topology of Image Algebras 4. A topology for configurations 4. A topology for images 4. Some examples 5. Metric Pattern Theory 5. Regularity controlled probabilities 5. Conditioning by regularity 5.

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Frozen patterns: finite G and n 5. Frozen patterns: infinite G and finite n. Quadratic energy function 5. Frozen patterns: infinite G and n 5. Asymptotically minimum energy 5. Asymptotics for large configurations 5. Spectral density matrix for? Factorization of the spectral density matrix 5. Representation of the random configurations 5.

Factorization of the spectral density matrix in two dimensions 5. Representations of the random configurations in the two dimensional case 5. Laws of large numbers in pattern theory 5. Random dynamics for configurations 6. Patterns of Scientific Hypotheses 6. Hypotheses as regular structures 6. Patterns of statistical hypotheses 6. Generators for statistical hypotheses 6.

Examples of configurations 6. Hypotheses as images 6. Image algebras of hypotheses 6. Conclusions 7. Synthesis of Social Patterns of Domination 7. The theory of action that Pierre Bourdieu proposes can be found in the correspondence between the domains of position fields and those of pattern habitus. The notion of field makes it possible to avoid a monofocused study, taking instead into account seriously the primacy of relationships by discarding the images of the individual, of the sum of individuals, of interactions between individuals, and thereby forcing the construction of a relational space of positions, a space which must then be correlated to the dispositions of the social subjects.

The space of interaction and that of objective power relations can then be thought of conjointly. In my opinion, it is justified by a number of elements. Compared with other works by the author which have the same objective, this is the only transcription of a course of study given over a period of several years, and this permits returning periodically to what has already been discussed, clarifications, and successive elaborations. The work differs from the other transcriptions of his oral talks, by often bringing in diverse comments linked with the context within which they were made, without ever constituting a global system 2.

It thus presents the advantage of re-establishing the general economy of his way of thinking in all its complexity, and thereby circumvents practices such as partial, and sometimes biased, critiques of the notions he presents 3. Techniques are described for segmentation of the breast and fibroglandular disk, including maximum entropy, a moment-preserving method, and Otsu's method. Image processing techniques are described for automatic detection of the nipple and the edge of the pectoral muscle via analysis in the Radon domain.

By using the nipple and the pectoral muscle as landmarks, mammograms are divided into their internal, external, upper, and lower parts for further analysis. Methods are presented for feature extraction using texture analysis, shape analysis, granulometric analysis, moments, and statistical measures. The CBIR system presented provides options for retrieval using the Kohonen self-organizing map and the k-nearest-neighbor method.

Methods are described for inclusion of expert knowledge to reduce the semantic gap in CBIR, including the query point movement method for relevance feedback RFb. Analysis of performance is described in terms of precision, recall, and relevance-weighted precision of retrieval. Results of application to a clinical database of mammograms are presented, including the input of expert radiologists into the CBIR and RFb processes.

Neural interfaces are one of the most exciting emerging technologies to impact bioengineering and neuroscience because they enable an alternate communication channel linking directly the nervous system with man-made devices. This book reveals the essential engineering principles and signal processing tools for deriving control commands from bioelectric signals in large ensembles of neurons.

The topics featured include analysis techniques for determining neural representation, modeling in motor systems, computing with neural spikes, and hardware implementation of neural interfaces. Beginning with an exploration of the historical developments that have led to the decoding of information from neural interfaces, this book compares the theory and performance of new neural engineering approaches for BMIs.

Lectures in Pattern Theory

Lung sounds auscultation is often the first noninvasive resource for detection and discrimination of respiratory pathologies available to the physician through the use of the stethoscope. Hearing interpretation, though, was the only means of appreciation of the lung sounds diagnostic information for many decades. Nevertheless, in recent years, computerized auscultation combined with signal processing techniques has boosted the diagnostic capabilities of lung sounds. The latter were traditionally analyzed and characterized by morphological changes in the time domain using statistical measures, by spectral properties in the frequency domain using simple spectral analysis, or by nonstationary properties in a joint time—frequency domain using short-time Fourier transform.

Advanced signal processing techniques, however, have emerged in the last decade, broadening the perspective in lung sounds analysis. The scope of this book is to present up-to-date signal processing techniques that have been applied to the area of lung sound analysis. Issues of nonstationarity, nonlinearity, non-Gaussianity, modeling, and classification of lung sounds are addressed with new methodologies, revealing a more realistic approach to their pragmatic nature.

Advanced denoising techniques that effectively circumvent the noise presence e. The book offers useful information both to engineers and physicians interested in bioacoustics, clearly demonstrating the current trends in lung sound analysis. Intended as an introduction to the field of biomedical engineering, this book covers the topics of biomechanics Part I and bioelectricity Part II. Each chapter emphasizes a fundamental principle or law, such as Darcy's Law, Poiseuille's Law, Hooke's Law, Starling's Law, levers, and work in the area of fluid, solid, and cardiovascular biomechanics.

Culminating the electrical portion are chapters covering Nernst and membrane potentials and Fourier transforms. Examples are solved throughout the book and problems with answers are given at the end of each chapter. A semester-long Major Project that models the human systemic cardiovascular system, utilizing both a Matlab numerical simulation and an electrical analog circuit, ties many of the book's concepts together.

The first chapter describes the health care delivery systems in Canada and in the U. This is followed by examples of various approaches used to measure physiological variables in humans, either for the purpose of diagnosis or monitoring potential disease conditions; a brief description of sensor technologies is included.

The function and role of the clinical engineer in managing medical technologies in industrialized and in developing countries are presented. This is followed by a chapter on patient safety mainly electrical safety and electromagnetic interference ; it includes a section on how to minimize liability and how to develop a quality assurance program for technology management. The next chapter discusses applications of telemedicine, including technical, social, and ethical issues.

The last chapter presents a discussion on the impact of technology on health care and the technology assessment process. This two-part book consolidates material that supports courses on technology development and management issues in health care institutions. It can be useful for anyone involved in design, development, or research, whether in industry, hospitals, or government. Once the subject of science fiction, the technologies necessary to accomplish this goal are rapidly becoming reality. In laboratories around the globe, research is being undertaken to restore function to the physically disabled, to replace areas of the brain damaged by disease or trauma and to augment human abilities.

Building neural interfaces and neuro-prosthetics relies on a diverse array of disciplines such as neuroscience, engineering, medicine and microfabrication just to name a few. This book presents a short history of neural interfacing N. The book is intended as an introduction for the college freshman or others wishing to learn more about the field. A resource guide is included for students along with a list of laboratories conducting N. The auscultation method is an important diagnostic indicator for hemodynamic anomalies.

Heart sound classification and analysis play an important role in the auscultative diagnosis. The term phonocardiography refers to the tracing technique of heart sounds and the recording of cardiac acoustics vibration by means of a microphone-transducer. Therefore, understanding the nature and source of this signal is important to give us a tendency for developing a competent tool for further analysis and processing, in order to enhance and optimize cardiac clinical diagnostic approach.

This book gives the reader an inclusive view of the main aspects in phonocardiography signal processing. A medical device is an apparatus that uses engineering and scientific principles to interface to physiology and diagnose or treat a disease. In this Lecture, we specifically consider thosemedical devices that are computer based, and are therefore referred to as medical instruments.

Further, the medical instruments we discuss are those that incorporate system theory into their designs. We divide these types of instruments into those that provide continuous observation and those that provide a single snapshot of health information. These instruments are termed patient monitoring devices and diagnostic devices, respectively.

Within this Lecture, we highlight some of the common system theory techniques that are part of the toolkit of medical device engineers in industry. These techniques include the pseudorandom binary sequence, adaptive filtering, wavelet transforms, the autoregressive moving average model with exogenous input, artificial neural networks, fuzzy models, and fuzzy control. Because the clinical usage requirements for patient monitoring and diagnostic devices are so high, system theory is the preferred substitute for heuristic, empirical processing during noise artifact minimization and classification.

Heredity performs literal communication of immensely long genomes through immensely long time intervals. Genomes nevertheless incur sporadic errors referred to as mutations which have significant and often dramatic effects, after a time interval as short as a human life. How can faithfulness at a very large timescale and unfaithfulness at a very short one be conciliated? The engineering problem of literal communication has been completely solved during the second half of the XX-th century. Originating in from Claude Shannon's seminal work, information theory provided means to measure information quantities and proved that communication is possible through an unreliable channel by means left unspecified up to a sharp limit referred to as its capacity, beyond which communication becomes impossible.

The quest for engineering means of reliable communication, named error-correcting codes, did not succeed in closely approaching capacity until when Claude Berrou and Alain Glavieux invented turbocodes. By now, the electronic devices which invaded our daily lives e. Reliable communication through unreliable channels up to the limit of what is theoretically possible has become a practical reality: an outstanding achievement, however little publicized.

As an engineering problem that nature solved aeons ago, heredity is relevant to information theory. The capacity of DNA is easily shown to vanish exponentially fast, which entails that error-correcting codes must be used to regenerate genomes so as to faithfully transmit the hereditary message. Moreover, assuming that such codes exist explains basic and conspicuous features of the living world, e. Providing geneticists with an introduction to information theory and error-correcting codes as necessary tools of hereditary communication is the primary goal of this book.

Some biological consequences of their use are also discussed, and guesses about hypothesized genomic codes are presented. Another goal is prompting communication engineers to get interested in genetics and biology, thereby broadening their horizon far beyond the technological field, and learning from the most outstanding engineer: Nature. This lecture book is intended to be an accessible and comprehensive introduction to random signal processing with an emphasis on the real-world applications of biosignals. Although the material has been written and developed primarily for advanced undergraduate biomedical engineering students it will also be of interest to engineers and interested biomedical professionals of any discipline seeking an introduction to the field.

Within education, most biomedical engineering programs are aimed to provide the knowledge required of a graduate student while undergraduate programs are geared toward designing circuits and of evaluating only the cardiac signals. Very few programs teach the processes with which to evaluate brainwave, sleep, respiratory sounds, heart valve sounds, electromyograms, electro-oculograms, or random signals acquired from the body. The primary goal of this lecture book is to help the reader understand the time and frequency domain processes which may be used and to evaluate random physiological signals.

A secondary goal is to learn the evaluation of actual mammalian data without spending most the time writing software programs. This is the third in a series of short books on probability theory and random processes for biomedical engineers. This book focuses on standard probability distributions commonly encountered in biomedical engineering.

Many important properties of jointly Gaussian random variables are presented. The primary subjects of the final chapter are methods for determining the probability distribution of a function of a random variable. Next, the probability distribution for a single random variable is determined from a function of two random variables using the CDF.

Then, the joint probability distribution is found from a function of two random variables using the joint PDF and the CDF. The aim of all three books is as an introduction to probability theory. The audience includes students, engineers and researchers presenting applications of this theory to a wide variety of problems—as well as pursuing these topics at a more advanced level. The theory material is presented in a logical manner—developing special mathematical skills as needed. Pertinent biomedical engineering examples are throughout the text. Drill problems, straightforward exercises designed to reinforce concepts and develop problem solution skills, follow most sections.

In this book, early models of saccades and smooth pursuit are presented. The smooth pursuit system allows tracking of a slow moving target to maintain its position on the fovea. Models of the smooth pursuit have been developed using systems control theory, all involving a negative feedback control system that includes a time delay, controller and plant in the forward loop, with unity feedback. The oculomotor plant consists of three muscle pairs and the eyeball. The work presented here is not an exhaustive coverage of the field, but focused on the interests of the author.

In Part II, a state-of-art model of the saccade system is presented, including a neural network that controls the system. A number of oculomotor plant models are described therein beginning with the Westheimer model published in , and up through our model involving a 4th-order oculomotor plant model. In this book, a multiscale model of the saccade system is presented, focusing on the neural network. Chapter 1 summarizes a whole muscle model of the oculomotor plant based on the 3rd-order and linear, and controlled by a physiologically based time-optimal neural network.

Chapter 2 presents a neural network model of biophysical neurons in the midbrain for controlling oculomotor muscles during horizontal human saccades. To investigate horizontal saccade dynamics, a neural circuitry, including omnipause neuron, premotor excitatory and inhibitory burst neurons, long lead burst neuron, tonic neuron, interneuron, abducens nucleus, and oculomotor nucleus, is developed. A generic neuron model serves as the basis to match the characteristics of each type of neuron in the neural network. We wish to express our thanks to William Pruehsner for drawing many of the illustrations in this book.

The replacement or augmentation of failing human organs with artificial devices and systems has been an important element in health care for several decades. Such devices as kidney dialysis to augment failing kidneys, artificial heart valves to replace failing human valves, cardiac pacemakers to reestablish normal cardiac rhythm, and heart assist devices to augment a weakened human heart have assisted millions of patients in the previous 50 years and offers lifesaving technology for tens of thousands of patients each year.

Significant advances in these biomedical technologies have continually occurred during this period, saving numerous lives with cutting edge technologies. Each of these artificial organ systems will be described in detail in separate sections of this lecture.

There are many books written about statistics, some brief, some detailed, some humorous, some colorful, and some quite dry. Each of these texts is designed for a specific audience. Too often, texts about statistics have been rather theoretical and intimidating for those not practicing statistical analysis on a routine basis.

Thus, many engineers and scientists, who need to use statistics much more frequently than calculus or differential equations, lack sufficient knowledge of the use of statistics. The audience that is addressed in this text is the university-level biomedical engineering student who needs a bare-bones coverage of the most basic statistical analysis frequently used in biomedical engineering practice. The text introduces students to the essential vocabulary and basic concepts of probability and statistics that are required to perform the numerical summary and statistical analysis used in the biomedical field.

This text is considered a starting point for important issues to consider when designing experiments, summarizing data, assuming a probability model for the data, testing hypotheses, and drawing conclusions from sampled data. A student who has completed this text should have sufficient vocabulary to read more advanced texts on statistics and further their knowledge about additional numerical analyses that are used in the biomedical engineering field but are beyond the scope of this text.

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  • This book is designed to supplement an undergraduate-level course in applied statistics, specifically in biomedical engineering. Practicing engineers who have not had formal instruction in statistics may also use this text as a simple, brief introduction to statistics used in biomedical engineering. The emphasis is on the application of statistics, the assumptions made in applying the statistical tests, the limitations of these elementary statistical methods, and the errors often committed in using statistical analysis.

    A number of examples from biomedical engineering research and industry practice are provided to assist the reader in understanding concepts and application. It is beneficial for the reader to have some background in the life sciences and physiology and to be familiar with basic biomedical instrumentation used in the clinical environment.

    This short book provides basic information about bioinstrumentation and electric circuit theory. Many biomedical instruments use a transducer or sensor to convert a signal created by the body into an electric signal. Our goal here is to develop expertise in electric circuit theory applied to bioinstrumentation. We begin with a description of variables used in circuit theory, charge, current, voltage, power and energy.

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    Next, Kirchhoff's current and voltage laws are introduced, followed by resistance, simplifications of resistive circuits and voltage and current calculations. Circuit analysis techniques are then presented, followed by inductance and capacitance, and solutions of circuits using the differential equation method. Finally, the operational amplifier and time varying signals are introduced. This lecture is written for a student or researcher or engineer who has completed the first two years of an engineering program i. At the end of the short book is a wide selection of problems, ranging from simple to complex.

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    Malignant tumors due to breast cancer and masses due to benign disease appear in mammograms with different shape characteristics: the former usually have rough, spiculated, or microlobulated contours, whereas the latter commonly have smooth, round, oval, or macrolobulated contours. Features that characterize shape roughness and complexity can assist in distinguishing between malignant tumors and benign masses. In spite of the established importance of shape factors in the analysis of breast tumors and masses, difficulties exist in obtaining accurate and artifact-free boundaries of the related regions from mammograms.

    Whereas manually drawn contours could contain artifacts related to hand tremor and are subject to intra-observer and inter-observer variations, automatically detected contours could contain noise and inaccuracies due to limitations or errors in the procedures for the detection and segmentation of the related regions. Modeling procedures are desired to eliminate the artifacts in a given contour, while preserving the important and significant details present in the contour.

    This book presents polygonal modeling methods that reduce the influence of noise and artifacts while preserving the diagnostically relevant features, in particular the spicules and lobulations in the given contours. In order to facilitate the derivation of features that capture the characteristics of shape roughness of contours of breast masses, methods to derive a signature based on the turning angle function obtained from the polygonal model are described.

    Methods are also described to derive an index of spiculation, an index characterizing the presence of convex regions, an index characterizing the presence of concave regions, an index of convexity, and a measure of fractal dimension from the turning angle function. Results of testing the methods with a set of contours of 65 benign masses and 46 malignant tumors are presented and discussed. It is shown that shape modeling and analysis can lead to classification accuracy in discriminating between benign masses and malignant tumors, in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, of up to 0.

    The methods have applications in modeling and analysis of the shape of various types of regions or objects in images, computer vision, computer graphics, and analysis of biomedical images, with particular significance in computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer. The presence of oriented features in images often conveys important information about the scene or the objects contained; the analysis of oriented patterns is an important task in the general framework of image understanding.

    As in many other applications of computer vision, the general framework for the understanding of oriented features in images can be divided into low- and high-level analysis. In the context of the study of oriented features, low-level analysis includes the detection of oriented features in images; a measure of the local magnitude and orientation of oriented features over the entire region of analysis in the image is called the orientation field.

    High-level analysis relates to the discovery of patterns in the orientation field, usually by associating the structure perceived in the orientation field with a geometrical model. This book presents an analysis of several important methods for the detection of oriented features in images, and a discussion of the phase portrait method for high-level analysis of orientation fields.

    In order to illustrate the concepts developed throughout the book, an application is presented of the phase portrait method to computer-aided detection of architectural distortion in mammograms. Recent advances in development of sequencing technology has resulted in a deluge of genomic data. In order to make sense of this data, there is an urgent need for algorithms for data processing and quantitative reasoning.

    An emerging in silico approach, called computational genomic signatures, addresses this need by representing global species-specific features of genomes using simple mathematical models. This text introduces the general concept of computational genomic signatures, and it reviews some of the DNA sequence models which can be used as computational genomic signatures. The text takes the position that a practical computational genomic signature consists of both a model and a measure for computing the distance or similarity between models. The remainder of the text covers various applications of computational genomic signatures in the areas of metagenomics, phylogenetics and the detection of horizontal gene transfer.

    The field of brain imaging is developing at a rapid pace and has greatly advanced the areas of cognitive and clinical neuroscience. To obtain comprehensive information about the activity of the human brain, different analytical approaches should be complemented. The multimodal approach is conceptually based on the combination of different noninvasive functional neuroimaging tools, their registration and cointegration. In particular, the combination of imaging applications that map different functional systems is useful, such as fMRI as a technique for the localization of cortical function and DTI as a technique for mapping of white matter fiber bundles or tracts.

    This booklet gives an insight into the wide field of multimodal imaging with respect to concepts, data acquisition, and postprocessing. Examples for intermodal and intramodal multimodality imaging are also demonstrated. This book is concerned with the study of continuum mechanics applied to biological systems, i. This vast and exciting subject allows description of when a bone may fracture due to excessive loading, how blood behaves as both a solid and fluid, down to how cells respond to mechanical forces that lead to changes in their behavior, a process known as mechanotransduction.

    We have written for senior undergraduate students and first year graduate students in mechanical or biomedical engineering, but individuals working at biotechnology companies that deal in biomaterials or biomechanics should also find the information presented relevant and easily accessible. Tremor represents one of the most common movement disorders worldwide. It affects both sexes and may occur at any age.

    In most cases, tremor is disabling and causes social difficulties, resulting in poorer quality of life. Tremor is now recognized as a public health issue given the aging of the population. Tremor is a complex phenomenon that has attracted the attention of scientists from various disciplines.

    Tremor results from dynamic interactions between multiple synaptically coupled neuronal systems and the biomechanical, physical, and electrical properties of the external effectors. There have been major advances in our understanding of tremor pathogenesis these last three decades, thanks to new imaging techniques and genetic discoveries.

    Moreover, significant progress in computer technologies, developments of reliable and unobtrusive wearable sensors, improvements in miniaturization, and advances in signal processing have opened new perspectives for the accurate characterization and daily monitoring of tremor. New therapies are emerging. In this book, we provide an overview of tremor from pathogenesis to therapeutic aspects.

    We review the definitions, the classification of the varieties of tremor, and the contribution of central versus peripheral mechanisms. Neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, neurochemical, and pharmacological topics related to tremor are pointed out. Our goals are to explain the fundamental basis of tremor generation, to show the recent technological developments, especially in instrumentation, which are reshaping research and clinical practice, and to provide up-to-date information related to emerging therapies.

    The integrative transdisciplinary approach has been used, combining engineering and physiological principles to diagnose, monitor, and treat tremor. Guidelines for evaluation of tremor are explained.