Metabolic Pathways. Energetics, Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle, and Carbohydrates

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Metabolic Pathways. Energetics, Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle, and Carbohydrates file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Metabolic Pathways. Energetics, Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle, and Carbohydrates book. Happy reading Metabolic Pathways. Energetics, Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle, and Carbohydrates Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Metabolic Pathways. Energetics, Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle, and Carbohydrates at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Metabolic Pathways. Energetics, Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle, and Carbohydrates Pocket Guide.

Dendritic cell metabolism. Nat Rev Immunol 15 1 — Metabolic reprograming in macrophage polarization. Front Immunol Innate immune responses to lung-stage helminth infection induce alternatively activated alveolar macrophages. Infect Immun 74 9 — Toll-like receptor-induced changes in glycolytic metabolism regulate dendritic cell activation.


  • Polymeric Materials With Antimicrobial Activity: From Synthesis to Applications.
  • Low and Intermediate Energy Kaon-Nucleon Physics: Proceedings of the Workshop held at the Institute of Physics of the University of Rome, March 24–28, 1980.
  • Metabolic Pathways.

Blood 23 —9. Commitment to glycolysis sustains survival of NO-producing inflammatory dendritic cells. Blood 7 — Glycolytic reprogramming by TLRs in dendritic cells. Nat Immunol 15 4 —5. Expression of the nitric oxide synthase gene in mouse macrophages activated for tumor cell killing. Molecular basis for the synergy between interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide. J Biol Chem 3 — PubMed Abstract Google Scholar. Induction of nitric oxide synthase in mouse dendritic cells by IFN-gamma, endotoxin, and interaction with allogeneic T cells: nitric oxide production is associated with dendritic cell apoptosis.

J Immunol 8 — Persistent inhibition of cell respiration by nitric oxide: crucial role of S-nitrosylation of mitochondrial complex I and protective action of glutathione.


  • Bioenergetics and Metabolism!
  • Energetics of Metabolism of One Glucose Molecule;
  • Navigation menu;
  • Quick Check!
  • Algebra for the Utterly Confused.
  • Biochemistry : Glycolysis Energetics!

Blood 3 — Regulation of glut1 mRNA by hypoxia-inducible factor Interaction between H-ras and hypoxia. J Biol Chem 12 — Hypoxia response elements in the aldolase A, enolase 1, and lactate dehydrogenase A gene promoters contain essential binding sites for hypoxia-inducible factor 1. J Biol Chem 51 — Cell Metab 21 1 — Nat Commun J Immunol 12 — J Immunol 11 — TSC2 mediates cellular energy response to control cell growth and survival. Cell 5 — How metabolism generates signals during innate immunity and inflammation. J Biol Chem 32 —8. Succinate: a metabolic signal in inflammation.

Tricarboxylic acid cycle

Trends Cell Biol 24 5 — Succinate dehydrogenase supports metabolic repurposing of mitochondria to drive inflammatory macrophages. Cell 2 — Nature — J Biol Chem 50 —9. Cell 1 — A conserved family of Prolylhydroxylases that modify HIF. Science — The tumour suppressor protein VHL targets hypoxia-inducible factors for oxygen-dependent proteolysis. Nature —5. J Clin Invest 10 — HIFmediated expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase: a metabolic switch required for cellular adaptation to hypoxia.

Cell Metab 3 3 — Regulation of mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by phosphorylation: complexity of multiple phosphorylation sites and kinases. Exp Mol Med —7. The mitochondrial citrate carrier: a new player in inflammation. Biochem J 3 —6. Itaconate links inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase with macrophage metabolic remodeling and regulation of inflammation. Cell Metab 24 1 — Nat Immunol 15 4 — ATP-citrate lyase links cellular metabolism to histone acetylation.

Akram M. Citric acid cycle and role of its intermediates in metabolism. Cell Biochem Biophys 68 3 —8. Palmieri F. The mitochondrial transporter family SLC25 : physiological and pathological implications. Pflugers Arch 5 — Saggerson D. Malonyl-CoA, a key signaling molecule in mammalian cells.

Overview of Metabolism | Cell Signaling Technology

Annu Rev Nutr 28 1 — Inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I augments sphingolipid synthesis and palmitate-induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem 6 —9. Isoforms of acetyl-CoA carboxylase: structures, regulatory properties and metabolic functions. Biochem Soc Trans 25 4 —8. Acetyl coenzyme A: a central metabolite and second messenger. Cell Metab 21 6 — Exp Mol Pathol 86 3 —9. Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in muscle. Inhibition by citrate. J Biol Chem 17 —3. Google Scholar. Correlation of the effects of citric acid cycle metabolites on succinate oxidation by rat liver mitochondria and submitochondrial particles.

J Bioenerg 7 1 :1— The mechanism of tricarboxylic acid cycle regulation of fatty acid synthesis. J Biol Chem 6 — Iacobazzi V, Infantino V.

Review ARTICLE

Citrate — new functions for an old metabolite. Biol Chem 4 — Network integration of parallel metabolic and transcriptional data reveals metabolic modules that regulate macrophage polarization. Immunity 42 3 — Biochim Biophys Acta 11 — ATP-citrate lyase is essential for macrophage inflammatory response. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1 — Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase AMP forming. Cell Mol Life Sci 61 16 — J Immunol 9 — Biochim Biophys Acta 8 — J Biol Chem 10 — Prognostic and therapeutic implications of increased ATP citrate lyase expression in human epithelial ovarian cancer.

Oncol Rep 27 4 — ATP citrate lyase knockdown induces growth arrest and apoptosis through different cell- and environment-dependent mechanisms. Mol Cancer Ther 11 9 ATP citrate lyase: activation and therapeutic implications in non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Res 68 20 — ATP citrate lyase is increased in human breast cancer, depletion of which promotes apoptosis. Tumor Biol 39 4 ATP-citrate lyase: a key player in cancer metabolism. Cancer Res 72 15 — Inhibition of ATP citrate lyase induces an anticancer effect via reactive oxygen species: AMPK as a predictive biomarker for therapeutic impact.

Am J Pathol 5 — FEBS J 2 — Srebp-controlled glucose metabolism is essential for NK cell functional responses. Nat Immunol 18 11 — Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 as a key transcription factor for nutritional induction of lipogenic enzyme genes. The mitochondrial citrate carrier: metabolic role and regulation of its activity and expression.

Nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding proteins activate genes responsible for the entire program of unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in transgenic mouse liver. J Biol Chem 52 — The roles of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins in the transactivation of the rat ATP citrate-lyase promoter. J Biol Chem 39 —6. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor HIF hydroxylases by citric acid cycle intermediates: possible links between cell metabolism and stabilization of HIF.

J Biol Chem 7 — The asparaginyl hydroxylase factor inhibiting HIF-1alpha is an essential regulator of metabolism. Cell Metab 11 5 — The growing landscape of lysine acetylation links metabolism and cell signalling. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 15 8 — Shi L, Tu BP. Acetyl-CoA and the regulation of metabolism: mechanisms and consequences.

Curr Opin Cell Biol — Acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 promotes acetate utilization and maintains cancer cell growth under metabolic stress. Cancer Cell 27 1 — Mehta V, Namboodiri MA. N-acetylaspartate as an acetyl source in the nervous system. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 31 1—2 —7.

INTRODUCTION

Binding energy resulting from the binding of phosphate groups to the active sites of enzymes lowers the activation energy and increases the specificity of the enzymatic reactions. Most glycolytic enzymes require Mg2 for activity. CIFE Entry Into The Citric Acid Cycle Glycolysis releases relatively little of the energy present in a glucose molecule; much more is released by the subsequent operation of the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.

Following this route under aerobic conditions, pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA by the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase and the acetyl CoA then enters the citric acid cycle. CIFE Conversion to fatty acid or ketone bodies.

Energetics of Cellular Respiration (Glucose Metabolism)

CIFE Conversion to ethanol. CIFE Metabolism of Fructose There are two pathways for the metabolism of fructose, one occurs in muscle and adipose tissue, the other in liver :- 1. In muscle and adipose tissue, fructose can be phosphorylated by hexokinase which is capable of phosphorylating both glucose and fructose to form fructose 6-phosphate which then enters glycolysis. In liver, the cells contain mainly glucokinase instead of hexokinase and this enzyme phosphorylates only glucose. Thus in liver, fructose is metabolized instead by the fructose 1- phosphate pathway Galactose and glucose are epimers that differ in their configuration at C Thus the entry of galactose into glycolysis requires an epimerization reaction.

Cellular Respiration Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, Electron Transport 3D Animation

Since citric acid reacts catalytically in the tissue it is probable that it is removed by a primary reaction but regenerated by a subsequent reaction. Krebs and W. Johnson, article in Enzymologia, CIFE Catabolism of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates in the three stages of cellular respiration. Stage 1: oxidation of fatty acids, glucose, and some amino acids yields acetyl-CoA.

Stage 2: oxidation of acetyl groups in the citric acid cycle includes four steps in which electrons are abstracted. This electron flow drives the production of ATP. CIFE Upcoming SlideShare. Like this presentation? Why not share! Embed Size px. Start on.


  • Making the European Polity: Reflexive Integration in the EU (Routledge Studies on Democratising Europe);
  • Enzymatic control of metabolic pathways.
  • The Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle.
  • Commodity Histories.
  • The Voyage of the Beagle: Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries Visited During the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle Round the World (Modern Library Classics).

Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Leave Sudhanshu Raman , central institute of fisheries education , mumbai Follow. Published in: Education.

Biochemistry. 5th edition.

Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Mahesh Kothagorla. No Downloads.

Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Carbohydrate energetics 1. In the body, these are broken down and turned into C-O bonds that are then breathed out as carbon dioxide. Because the plasma membrane generally lacks transporters for phosphorylated sugars, the phosphorylated glycolytic intermediates cannot leave the cell.

admin