Metabolic Pathways. Energetics, Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle, and Carbohydrates

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Dendritic cell metabolism. Nat Rev Immunol 15 1 — Metabolic reprograming in macrophage polarization. Front Immunol Innate immune responses to lung-stage helminth infection induce alternatively activated alveolar macrophages. Infect Immun 74 9 — Toll-like receptor-induced changes in glycolytic metabolism regulate dendritic cell activation.

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Blood 3 — Regulation of glut1 mRNA by hypoxia-inducible factor Interaction between H-ras and hypoxia. J Biol Chem 12 — Hypoxia response elements in the aldolase A, enolase 1, and lactate dehydrogenase A gene promoters contain essential binding sites for hypoxia-inducible factor 1. J Biol Chem 51 — Cell Metab 21 1 — Nat Commun J Immunol 12 — J Immunol 11 — TSC2 mediates cellular energy response to control cell growth and survival. Cell 5 — How metabolism generates signals during innate immunity and inflammation. J Biol Chem 32 —8. Succinate: a metabolic signal in inflammation.

Tricarboxylic acid cycle

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Citrate — new functions for an old metabolite. Biol Chem 4 — Network integration of parallel metabolic and transcriptional data reveals metabolic modules that regulate macrophage polarization. Immunity 42 3 — Biochim Biophys Acta 11 — ATP-citrate lyase is essential for macrophage inflammatory response. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1 — Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase AMP forming. Cell Mol Life Sci 61 16 — J Immunol 9 — Biochim Biophys Acta 8 — J Biol Chem 10 — Prognostic and therapeutic implications of increased ATP citrate lyase expression in human epithelial ovarian cancer.

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Binding energy resulting from the binding of phosphate groups to the active sites of enzymes lowers the activation energy and increases the specificity of the enzymatic reactions. Most glycolytic enzymes require Mg2 for activity. CIFE Entry Into The Citric Acid Cycle Glycolysis releases relatively little of the energy present in a glucose molecule; much more is released by the subsequent operation of the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.

Following this route under aerobic conditions, pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA by the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase and the acetyl CoA then enters the citric acid cycle. CIFE Conversion to fatty acid or ketone bodies.

Energetics of Cellular Respiration (Glucose Metabolism)

CIFE Conversion to ethanol. CIFE Metabolism of Fructose There are two pathways for the metabolism of fructose, one occurs in muscle and adipose tissue, the other in liver :- 1. In muscle and adipose tissue, fructose can be phosphorylated by hexokinase which is capable of phosphorylating both glucose and fructose to form fructose 6-phosphate which then enters glycolysis. In liver, the cells contain mainly glucokinase instead of hexokinase and this enzyme phosphorylates only glucose. Thus in liver, fructose is metabolized instead by the fructose 1- phosphate pathway Galactose and glucose are epimers that differ in their configuration at C Thus the entry of galactose into glycolysis requires an epimerization reaction.

Cellular Respiration Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, Electron Transport 3D Animation

Since citric acid reacts catalytically in the tissue it is probable that it is removed by a primary reaction but regenerated by a subsequent reaction. Krebs and W. Johnson, article in Enzymologia, CIFE Catabolism of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates in the three stages of cellular respiration. Stage 1: oxidation of fatty acids, glucose, and some amino acids yields acetyl-CoA.

Stage 2: oxidation of acetyl groups in the citric acid cycle includes four steps in which electrons are abstracted. This electron flow drives the production of ATP. CIFE Upcoming SlideShare. Like this presentation? Why not share! Embed Size px. Start on.

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Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Carbohydrate energetics 1. In the body, these are broken down and turned into C-O bonds that are then breathed out as carbon dioxide. Because the plasma membrane generally lacks transporters for phosphorylated sugars, the phosphorylated glycolytic intermediates cannot leave the cell.