Leadership in the Open: A New Paradigm in Emergency Management

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Latest polls show that the Coalition is leading Labor on a two-party vote. Gillard has three weeks to turn the tide. If current numbers hold on August 21, the Coalition would gain 28 seats—11 more than it needs to form a government. Labor has approached former prime minister Kevin Rudd to help in the swing state of Queensland.

Rudd said he would return to the political stage after he recovers from his gall bladder surgery. Trade surplus shrinks and interest rate hikes. For the sixth consecutive month, New Zealand has export surplus. Experts agree that the recovery process has largely been export-driven. Investments and saving rates remain low as markets remain cautious.


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In response, the Reserve Bank of New Zealand increased prime rates by a quarter of a percent to 3 percent. The central bank is anticipating inflationary pressures in the near term due to economic growth. On October 1, the tax schedule will increase from No plans for an asylum camp.

East Timorese president Jose Ramos-Horta reiterated the public and parliamentary position that Timor-Leste had no plans to build a detention center for refugees. He asserted that his administration was open to discuss plans with Australia but that there has been no official response from Canberra. Australian initiatives in this area are seen as a bid by Prime Minister Julia Gillard to improve her credentials on the important refugee and immigration issues before the August 21 national elections. Gillard made the offshore processing center initiative a key issue for her electoral campaign.

Senate Committee on Finance. The PIF is an intergovernmental organization that aims to enhance cooperation between the independent countries of the Pacific Ocean and represent their interests. Advance trip by Secretaries of Finance and Trade of the Philippines. Among the key sectors they intend to promote are infrastructure power, transportation, airports , tourism, business process outsourcing, electronics, mining, and agriculture.

New New Zealand ambassador arriving. On his return, Ambassador Ferguson will assume a new high-level position, to be announced soon. In the meantime, his successor, Michael Moore, arrived on August 2 to take over in Washington. Singapore will celebrate its 45th National Day on August 9, Singapore attained independence from Malaysia on August 9, Thank you for your interest in U. Join the conversation!

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Bower On Demand Event. March 28, On Demand Event. Indonesia and the United States: 20 Years post-Reformasi. October 23, The South China Sea Arbitration. June 20, By Heather A. Conley , Ernest Z. May 10, By John J. Hamre , Michael J. Green , Matthew P. Goodman , Scott Miller , Ernest Z. Bower , Victor Cha , Christopher K. Johnson , Richard M. April 20, February 26, Command and control arrangements that support disaster management also need to be adequate at strategic, operational and tactical levels, and understood by officials. Communities also need to be as resilient as possible in their response to and recovery from the impact of disaster events, and they must also have appropriate frameworks for assessing the level of community resilience.

The NSDR outlines that disaster management is a shared responsibility between governments, communities, business and individuals, not the sole responsibility of emergency management agencies [9]. Communities expect that our cities and critical infrastructure will be resilient enough to cope with and that our disaster management arrangements and emergency management officials are adequate [10]. Australia will also be affected by the impacts of climate change internationally through commodity prices, trade volumes and socio-economic factors, including pressures for disaster relief and migration [11].

The review of flooding in the United Kingdom [12] identified that Government leadership is required to: influence the way in which our society adapts to climate change; implement an adaptation process that will take place over more than a generation; and ensure disaster managers have the necessary capabilities. Building disaster resilience is a shared responsibility that will require sustained behavioural change, therefore disaster management is recognised increasingly as a whole-of-government responsibility and not just the purview of emergency service organisations [13].

Adapting to the impacts of climate change will be challenging, take considerable time and involve an integrated approach to planning across all aspects of society by all levels of government and business. Of particular importance is the inclusion of the capability of emergency response agencies and the roles of their leaders in frameworks for assessing disaster resilience within a community.

Resilience is a relatively new term in the context of emergency and disaster management and represents a major policy shift on the part of the Australian Government in recent years. Implementing a national adaptation strategy, such as that proposed by the Allen Consulting Group [20] will assist in reducing these impacts.

However, to be effective, an adaptation strategy must be included as a normal part of decision-making processes by governments, businesses and individuals, and be complementary to other risk assessment and management processes.

Critical infrastructure refers to the networks, systems and infrastructure that deliver essential services including electricity and other power sources, water, health, transport, communications and finance which collectively facilitate the effective functioning of communities. Critical infrastructure resilience therefore is interrelated with, and contributes to, disaster resilience and community resilience. Achieving disaster resilience is a long-term outcome which will require sustained behavioural change that will only become evident in years to come and after a number of political cycles [35].

It will require enhancing existing arrangements and involve governments, communities, businesses and individuals who collectively share the responsibility for a resilience-based approach to work collaboratively, not just the emergency management community [36]. The change in focus from response oriented policy to resilience in relation to emergency and disaster management follows a significant shift in national security policy by the Australian Government.

The concepts of critical infrastructure resilience, community resilience and disaster resilience are interrelated. The significance of the threats from climate change cannot be understated. The NSS, NSDR and CIRS therefore, which incorporate policy for responding to and dealing with the impacts of climate change, are extremely significant documents for the emergency and disaster management community in Australia. Despite this acknowledgement however, very little research has been undertaken to date on the topic. There are significant benefits for communities and governments from integrating CCA and DRR including reduced losses when events do occur and more efficient use of resources generally.

Disaster resilience is a community issue, and needs to be assessed across the whole community, not just within the emergency services or specific community segments. A study by Donahue and Tuohy [50] represents an exploratory analysis of lessons not learned from disaster events conducted following the failure of the emergency response agencies after Hurricane Katrina impacted the Unites States in According to Donahue and Tuohy [51] the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism, Frances Townsend, in a press release on 23 February , identified planning, resource management, evacuation, situational awareness, communications, and coordination as issues of concern following Hurricane Katrina.

Lessons learned from issues relating to leadership, planning, public relations and resource management were identified in each of the events reviewed. Donahue and Tuohy [54] identified a number of reasons why these issues continue to arise. Additionally, political implications for an agency or a leader who admits mistakes or problems may have significant ramifications for the agency or the individual. Research by Donahue and Tuohy identified the need for greater accountability management of emergency and disaster events, and more broadly, in the application of frameworks designed to support its management.

The study was conducted in the context of the endorsed NSDR and reviewed the following inquiry reports:. Goode et al. No specific question or hypothesis was posed by Goode et al. To conduct the research, Goode et al. Consequently, they are qualitative in nature and are open to interpretation by other researchers. During this process though, additional themes outside the major strategic issues were identified. These were categorised and also included in the final report. These themes and variables adopted by Goode et al.

An objective set of variables could have been devised based on the requirements of a resilient community. However, this would have been problematic as the construct of a resilient community had not then been explicitly determined. Ego-centric organizations consist of leaders and followers who think only of themselves, and the focus is inevitably on survival and the short term. Competition exists at all levels. A step higher is the social-centric setup where one moves from the self to thinking about those around.

Collaboration replaces competition. A still higher level is global-centric, where one thinks of the long term and of the whole world. Collaboration is enhanced by compassion, and the rise in level enhances the quality of life and effectivity of all. The person at the top of the pyramid no longer takes all the decisions, everyone takes decisions and is responsible.

This participation releases great energy. As the organization model becomes decentralized and changes from the collective serving the leader to the leader serving the collective, organizations become more dynamic, innovative and creative. Leadership is distributed lower down the organization till everyone becomes a self-guided leader in some measure.

In such evolutionary organizations, instances of which we already see in companies like Google Inc. There is a shift in the position of power. Of the three temptations which the devil offered Christ in the desert, wealth, power and glory, the true leader is free.

Power is perhaps the most alluring of the three. Traditionally, power rested at the top of the pyramid. Teachers imparted knowledge in a one-way approach. Rulers unilaterally decided the fate of countries. The Church dictated the rules of religion. Top-down organizations concentrated most of the power in the hands of a few.

A paradigm change has to change the way power is distributed and wielded. The transformational leader does not hold all the reins, but empowers others. A study of all great leaders shows that they never sought the top post.

William Gordon, MD, MBI

They followed their ideals, power gravitated towards them. Gandhi sought independence for India, he did not care for a political post. Jean Monnet initiated the process that resulted in the European Union, but he never held a high official position. Gorbachev said that if anybody within the Communist Party had objected, he would not have taken the top post. His primary goal was to revive the Soviet economy and reform its political and social structure.

He was the first man in Russian history to have left the Kremlin without clinging to power. Every reform he initiated came at the cost of his own power, but he went on determinedly, till he finally declared his own office extinct, and in the process, liberated many peoples. Mandela was a great leader who ended Apartheid in South Africa, what made him greater was the complete absence of any vindictiveness when he came to power.

There was no resentment for the twenty seven years he was made to spend in prison, or anger at the unfairness of the old system. He ensured that the transition from apartheid to unity was without retribution and civil war. He ensured reconciliation and integration in society. The sparkling gemstone gets its sparkle from its many facets.

The Leadership Course lectures and the panel discussion that followed each lecture identified different characteristics that form the many facets of transformational leadership. In order to facilitate the emergence of effective transformational leaders at all levels of society, we need to understand the character of the transformational leader, and the process that creates and nurtures leadership. Leaders are people-centered, they are in touch with others. They are generous, taking pleasure in empowering and serving others.

They get real satisfaction not from being in control, but in seeing the success of others. They feel love and compassion for all.

Open and social leadership: a new paradigm in emergency management.

Just as teachers know that they learn more by teaching, true leaders know that they grow by giving. They create other leaders. They listen to others. Members of the public felt connected to him and his wife, Eleanor Roosevelt. It was said of Roosevelt that in order to defuse a situation, whereas the previous president Herbert Hoover sent the army, Roosevelt sent his wife. The first couple were so in touch with the people. One factory worker rushed home after work, explaining that he did not want to miss Roosevelt on radio. Apart from factual knowledge, effective leaders need emotional and social intelligence.

They need to be able to recognize emotions, both in themselves and in others. They communicate well with others, and enjoy good relationships. They are able to get others to cooperate with them. They do not see in black and white. They are aware that there are times when the lesser evil has to be accepted in order to overcome the greater evil, a smaller good must be sacrificed for the greater good. They anticipate, prepare for and handle change. Leaders need to take risks.

Using the analogy of a captain of a ship, Donato Kiniger-Passigli, Head, Fragile States and Disaster Response Group, International Labour Office, analysed the many aspects of effective decision-making which is a key element of transformational leadership. In order to take right decisions, the leader needs to think i strategically, and have a clear vision of what is and what needs to be done, ii tactically, and know how the thing should be done, and iii operationally, and execute the task.

An aerial view, or a higher perspective, must be combined with a hands-on view or problem solving attitude, for effective decision-making. Great leaders are people of immense courage. Physical courage that is required to face the enemy army is clear.

First Line: Big data and analytics form a new paradigm in emergency management

It is courage of another type to break away from the norm and try out a new idea in science, art, writing or public policy. Winston Churchill said that courage is what it takes to stand up and speak; courage is also what it takes to sit down and listen. When the powerful Church says the earth is at the center of the universe, it takes courage to think of another possibility, and profess it. When the Second World War has just concluded, it takes courage to propose a collaboration with Germany, treating it as an equal.

Schools will do away with different academic subjects, and teach broad trans-disciplinary topics that touch upon all subjects. Instead of geography, history, political science and economics, students will learn the topic of the European Union, and all the subjects will be covered within the context of the EU, in an integrated way. It is courage again when a country with the top international test scores breaks away from a centuries-old model and embarks on a new course. Visionary leaders are people of great conviction.

When he made the commitment, the technology to land on the moon was not developed, nor yet the technology to return safely to earth. The costs involved were enormous. Great leadership needs passion. But after three months, they gave up in spite of the fact that they heavily outnumbered Britain in aircraft and experienced pilots. He said he had nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat, and every one of his countrymen was willing to follow him and offer the same.

In the face of such passionate resistance, the opponent has no choice but to give up. Passion is necessary, but by itself is not adequate. History recounts a large number of people who had a clear idea of what they wanted, and wanted it with great passion, but the world would have been better off without such qualities in them. Hitler, Mussolini and Stalin were a few who were clear about what they wanted So, no matter how far and how clearly one sees, if one is looking in the wrong direction, one leads society to the past, not the future.

The right direction is required. Ethics and values provide this direction. They are m essengers from our subliminal greatnesss that direct our steps towards wholesome progress. All of us think, or so we think. Many of our opinions are borrowed from others, social norms set the limits and we stay safely within those boundaries, even at the level of thought. But transformational leaders really think — freshly, critically and creatively.

They see the patterns that repeat in societies, the trends that evolve, they see problems beforehand. And then, they also transcend thinking and act on inspiration that is based neither on past experience nor on information. Franklin Roosevelt said that the economics he learnt at Harvard was not what he relied on when he went on national radio and told the people that there was nothing to fear but fear itself, and resolved the national banking crisis.

True leaders lead by example. The small boy loved sugar, and no matter how much his mother scolded him, he would not stop. Gandhi asked her to return with the boy in two weeks. The lady obediently left, and returned in the said time. Gandhi then told her son that too much sugar is not good for health, and so he should stop eating it. Gandhi told her that two weeks back, he was eating sugar himself!

The leader expects or asks nothing of the followers that he is not willing to do himself.

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Harry Truman said that it is amazing what you can accomplish if you do not care who gets the credit. Of all the people involved, Gorbachev was one of the few who never took credit for the end of the Cold War!


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The real leader is humble. Jean Monnet was motivated by altruism when he worked to create a united Europe. He sought nothing for himself, and was quick to give others credit for anything that worked out well. At the end of World War I, out of gratitude for his work, the British wanted to knight him. When he received the insignia, he sent it back, saying he did not merit the honour. The British, not understanding his humility, believed Monnet thought he deserved a higher award, so they promoted him to Knight Commander of the British Empire!

Egolessness is a sure sign of a truly great leader. There is great power in silence, self-restraint and small significant acts. Franklin Roosevelt remained preternaturally calm in the face of crises. He seemed in touch with the infinite. He never betrayed any nervousness when one upsetting news followed another before and during the Second World War. He confronted with equanimity the internal politics among his colleagues, the latest demand from Churchill for emergency aid, and the opposition at home to American involvement in the War.

One of the problems George Washington faced as a general fighting the American War of Independence was that the different states, in spite of being on the same side, did not always cooperate. We have successfully cut up the earth and divided it amongst ourselves, on the basis of geography, ethnicity, language, religion, income level and so on. But we see more and more trans-border issues. When the sea level rises, it rises in South America just the same as in Asia. Religious fundamentalism and ethnic strife seem to be spreading regardless of national GDPs.

Deforestation in Amazon rainforests leads to mountain snow melting in Nepal and flooding in India and Pakistan. On the positive side, any new development in any lab in the world reaches the markets all over the world. Ideas rapidly spread worldwide due to advanced telecommunications. An atrocity in any corner of the world is condemned, and sometimes even telecast live, worldwide. When a British newspaper reports that fishermen and sailors in the fishing boats in Thailand are treated badly, departmental stores in America and Europe threaten to stop procuring sea food from the country unless the conditions are improved.

When a Pakistani girl insists that she will continue her education in spite of the threat of terrorists, the world comes to her support, and awards her the Nobel Prize. However, we continue to insist on our separateness. An integrated view of the world and of all life that is absent from the majority can be seen in the leaders who have shaped and influenced the future of the world.

Jean Monnet saw the possibility of cooperation and mutual benefit in the midst of hostility and conflicting purposes. He tied together the French and the larger European interest in ensuring peace and future security with the German interest in achieving political and economic rehabilitation. His proposals were a shock to many, but Monnet saw that to offer Germany equality with other European nations was essential for the common welfare.

Transformational l eaders overcome dualistic thinking. They reconcile apparent opposites. Lee Iacocca tells the story of an engineer who worked with him at Chrysler. The engineer was a genius, but an argumentative and outspoken genius. For him the creative process was like hand-to-hand combat. But he kept Iacocca on his toes, and the consequence was always an improved car design. In business, politics or any other field, if the leader receives, or allows expression for only one point of view, his own point of view, then he needs to worry about the future.

Lincoln never judged men by his like or dislike for them.

If someone had quarrelled with him, but happened to be the fittest man for a position in the Cabinet, Lincoln would put him in the Cabinet just as soon as he would a friend. Churchill included in his War Cabinet, members of the opposition. The true leader takes consciousness responsibility, that is, responsibility for something greater than himself, greater than the authority he has. Like Gorbachev took responsibility for humanity by ending the Cold War, regardless of what it cost him personally.

Garry Jacobs, Chief Executive Officer, WAAS and WUC, in his concluding remarks stated that a complete act meets three psychological conditions — clarity of knowledge and full mental decision; enthusiastic emotional endorsement; and skilled execution through positive attitudes. If a single element is missing — one decision, one positive attitude or one skill — the act remains incomplete.

For it to achieve a result, it must meet all the minimum requirements. The complete act has the potential for instantaneous miraculousness.

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